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Welfare of dairy cow in continuously housed and pasture-based production systems

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Welfare of dairy cow in continuously housed and pasture-based production systems

Abstract

The {aim of this study|purpose of this study|objective of this research|goal of this study} was to {assess the effect|determine the impact|evaluate the effects|examine the impact} of{ the|} {housing systems|different housing arrangements|dwelling systems|houses} (loose vs tie-stall) on the welfare of dairy {cows and|cows as well as|cows , and|cattle and} to {test the hypothesis|verify the notion} that dairy {cows in|cows living in|cows with|cattle in} loose housing systems {have a|enjoy|are of|have} {better welfare quality|higher welfare standard|better quality of life|superior welfare rating} than those{ kept|| who are kept| that are housed} in tie-stalls. {Sixty commercial dairy farms|60 commercial farms|A total of sixty commercial dairy farms|Sixty dairy farms that are commercially owned} (30 with loose {and|housing and|housing systems and|housing, and} 30 with {tie-stall housing system|tie-stall housing systems|tie-stall-style housing|tie-stall housing}) were {selected for evaluation|chosen for evaluation|selected to be evaluated|chosen to evaluate}{, using mainly animal-based measures| using mostly animal-based metrics| using mostly animal-based indicators| with a focus on animal-based measurements}{, as the applied| in the manner that the| according to the| and as per the} Welfare Quality (r) protocol {allows|permits} it. A total{ number|} of 2624 milking {cows were assessed|cows were evaluated|cows was evaluated|cattle were assessed} {in the winter period|during the winter time|in the winter months|in the winter season}. There were {significant|notable|substantial|some significant} {differences between the two|distinctions between two|variations between both|difference between these two} {housing systems|systems of housing} {for the majority of the|in the majority of} {parameters within|factors within|aspects of|variables within} the four {welfare principles|principles of welfare}{Significant differences were also found|There were significant differences|The two systems also had significant differences|Also, there were notable differences} {in terms of the mean|regarding the average|in the mean|with regard to the mean} {scores of the welfare criteria|score of welfare standards|values of each of the criteria|results of these criteria} {and principles|and guidelines|and the principles|as well as the basic principles}{, with the majority pointing| and the majority of them pointing| which showed the majority of people pointing| in which the majority pointed} {out the loose system as|that the loose system was|to the loose system as|the loose one as} {better|superior|more favorable}. Based on the {scores|results} of the four {principles,|principles|fundamentals,|principle,} {most of the farms with|most farms with|majority of farms with|the majority of farms that had} {loose housing|houses that were loose|homes that are loose|open housing} were {classified as enhanced|classified as improved|classified as better|categorized as higher}{, while| and| while} {the majority of the|the majority of|most} tie-stall farms were {acceptable|considered acceptable|deemed acceptable|in the acceptable range}. The {results show that the|results indicate that the|results reveal that the|findings show that} welfare{ quality|} {of dairy cows|for dairy cattle|that dairy cows enjoy|in dairy animals} is {greatly|heavily|significantly} {influenced by|affected by|dependent on} the housing system{, and| and|. It also shows|. This means} {that the loose|that a loose|that a loose housing|the loose} system is {more advantageous|better|superior|more beneficial} {when it comes to the|in terms of|in regards to the|with regards to} {feeding, housing and behaviour|diet, housing, and behavior|food, housing and behavior|eating, housing and behaviour} {of the dairy cow|that dairy cattle|for the cows that milk it|and behaviour of dairy animals}.

Introduction

{As defined by|According to} Broom{, the welfare of| The welfare of| the term “welfare” means that| the concept of welfare by Broom, the wellbeing of} an individual {is its state|refers to its condition|is the state it has|is his or her state} {as regards its attempts|in relation to its efforts|with regard to how it attempts|when it comes to the way in which it attempts} to {cope with its environment|live in a secluded environment|adapt to its surroundings|deal with its surroundings} (Broom{,|} 1986). In this {sense, welfare|way, the concept of welfare|sense, it is clear that welfare|regard, welfare} is {a characteristic of the|a characteristic of an|a quality of the|an attribute of the} animal{, not something that is| and not something that is| and is not something| which is not} {given|granted|handed|provided} to it (Broom{,|} 1991). If {one were to compare|we compare|one compares} the dairy industry {to|with} an {open physical system,|open physical system|open system of physical systems,|open-ended physical system,} {there are only a|it is a|the dairy industry has only|you will find only} {few|handful of} {major|important|significant|essential} inputs (elements {provided by the farmer|that are provided by the farmer|offered by the farmer|supplied by the farmers} to{ the|} dairy cows){: housing, feeding| including housing, food| such as housing, nutrition| that include housing, feeding} (including {watering|drinking|the watering|irrigation}{and human handling|as well as human-handling|along with human hand-holding|in addition to human interaction}. The {farm management chooses the|management of the farm chooses|farm management selects the|management of the farm decides on the} {elements of these,|components of these|aspects of these|parts of these,} {according to the possibilities|in accordance with the capabilities|depending on the needs|depending on the options} of the farmer {and|as well as} {the perceived needs of|the needs that are perceived by|the requirements of|their perception of the needs of} the animals. The {outcomes are all the|results are all the|result is all the|outcomes include all} {characteristics of the cows that|traits of the cows that|characteristics of the cattle that|aspects of the cows which} {are influenced by the|are affected by the|are influenced by|can be affected by the} inputs{: the productive and reproductive| that affect reproductive and productive| including reproductive and productive| such as reproductive and productive} performance, {the physical health|physical health|physical|as well as the physical} {and mental wellbeing; essentially|and mental well-being; in essence|and mental health; and primarily|as well as mental wellbeing, which is essentially} the {production and welfare|welfare and production} {of the cows|of cows|that the animals|for the cattle}. It has been {shown|proven|demonstrated|observed} that {the interactions between production|the interplay between the production|the interactions between the production|interactions between the production} {system and management can|management and the system can|management and system can|management and the system could} {lead to large variations in|result in large differences between|cause large variances in|create large variations in} herds{ with regard to| in relation to||‘ performance in terms of} {animal welfare|the welfare of animals} (Sandoe et al.{,|} 1997) {so that|which means that|and|thus} the {housing type constitutes|type of housing is|kind of housing used is|type of housing utilized is} an important {element of influence|factor in influencing|aspect of influence|element that influences}{Thus, it becomes clear|It is evident|This means|Therefore, it is clear} that the {different|various|diverse|many} {aspects, elements, facilities|elements, components, facilities|aspects, elements,|elements, aspects, facilities} and {equipments of|equipments in|devices of|other equipments that comprise} the {housing environment may influence|living environment can affect|environment of housing can influence|house environment could affect} the {ability of the animal|capacity of animals|animal’s ability|capacity of the animal} to {cope with|deal with|manage|handle} {it|the environment}. For {example, the number|instance, the quantity|instance, the size|example, the amount}{, design and placement| the design, layout and location| or design| designs, the layout, and design} of {the feeding and drinking|drinking and feeding|drinking and food|the drinking and eating} facilities {may influence the activities|can affect the behavior|could affect the behaviour|could influence the actions} of{ the|} {cattle|livestock|animals} (food {and water intake|as well as water consumption|or water intake|and intake of water}{but also|as well as} their social {behaviour and the|behavior and|behavior as well as the|behaviour as well as the} {occurrence|incidence|possibility|presence} {of physical injuries|in the form of injuries to their bodies|injury to the body|for physical injury} (Rousing et al.{,|} 2000). {Many different variations|There are many different types|Numerous variations|A variety of different forms} of {cattle housing exist,|cattle housing are available,|housing for cattle exist,|cattle housing exist} {but most of these|however, the majority of them|but the majority|however the majority of them} {can be included in|are classified into|can be classified into|can be classified in} two {major categories,|main categories,|broad categories|categories,} {according to the confinement degree|depending on the degree of confinement|in accordance with the degree of confinement|according to the confinement level} {of the cows:|that cows are in:|for the cattle:|of cows.}{ the|} loose or {the tie-stall housing|tie-stall housing|tie-stall} system. The {advantages and disadvantages|benefits and drawbacks} of {both of these|both|both systems|each} {and their effects|and their impact|as well as their effect|and their impacts} on the {health and behaviour|behavior and health|overall health and behavior|health and behavior} of{ the|} dairy cows {have been extensively|have been thoroughly|are being thoroughly|have been meticulously} {studied|examined|researched|investigated}{Thus, compared to the|So, in comparison to|Therefore, when compared to|In comparison to} more traditional {tie-stall systems,|tie-stall systems|tie-stall system,|tie-stalls,} loose housing {comes with|has|offers} {the advantage of better|the benefit of improved|the advantages of better|an advantage of better} udder health (Hultgren{,|} 2002{;| and|} Regula {et al|and al|et al}., 2004){, lower risk| and a lower risk| as well as a lower chance| Also, a lower risk} of ketosis{ and better|, and higher| as well as better| and improved} {fertility|fertileness|productivity|quality of life} (Valde et al.{,|} 1997){, generally being| generally} {accepted by welfare scientists|recognized by welfare experts|acknowledged by welfare researchers|considered by welfare experts} as having {a superior|the|a better|the best} {potential for higher|chance of ensuring better|possibility of better|capacity for better} animal {welfare|well-being|wellbeing} (Rousing et al.{,|} 2000). {Loose housing systems, nevertheless|However, loose housing systems|The loose housing systems, however|But, these systems of housing, although loose}{, have the disadvantage of| are not without disadvantages, including| they have the disadvantage of| come with the drawback of} {a higher risk of lameness|having a higher chance of being lame|the higher risk of lameness|an increased risk of lameness} (Cook{,|} 2003; Sogstad et al., 2005). There is {some evidence that|evidence to suggest that|evidence that|some evidence to suggest that} {loose-housing|housing that is loose|the use of loose housing|living in loose houses} (Weary and Taszkun{,|} 2000) {and regular outdoor exercise|and regular outdoor exercises|as well as regular outdoor exercise|and regular outdoor activity} (Gustafson{,|} 1993{;| and|} Regula {et al|and others|and co|and al}., 2004) {have positive effects on|can improve|are beneficial to|can have beneficial effects on} the {health and welfare|well-being and health|overall health and well-being|wellbeing and health} {of dairy cows|dairy cattle|of milk cows|that dairy cows enjoy}{Yet, fewer studies were|However, there were fewer studies|But, less research was|But, few studies were} {conducted on the overall|done on the overall|carried out on the general|conducted to determine the general} welfare of{ the|} dairy cows {in different|under different|living in various} {housing|living} conditions.

The {aim of this study|purpose of this study|objective of this research|goal of this study} was to {assess the effect|determine the impact|evaluate the effects|examine the impact} {of the housing system|on the system of housing|that the type of housing|in the structure of housing} (loose vs tie-stall) on{ the|} dairy cows’ {welfare and|welfare as well as|health and|well-being and} to {test the hypothesis|examine the possibility|verify the theory|investigate the idea} that dairy cows {in|living in a|who live in a|with} loose housing {system have a|systems have|have} {better welfare quality|higher welfare|higher quality of welfare|better quality of life} {than those kept|than those|than those who are kept|as compared to those that are housed} in tie-stalls.

Materials and methods

The farms

The study was {conducted in|conducted on|carried out in} 60 {selected commercial dairy farms|dairy farms that were selected for commercial use|commercial dairy farms} (mean +- {sd|SD|Sd}, 84+-36.2 lactating cows){,|} {30 with tie stalls|thirty tie-stalls|30 using tie stalls|30 with tie-stalls} (mean +- {sd|SD|Sd|the sd}, 70+-30.5 lactating cows) and 30 with {loose|a loose} housing {system|systems} (mean {+- sd|+-SD}{,|} 98+-36.7 {lactating cows|dairy cows lactating|milking cows|lactating cattle}){, from| located in| The cows were from| and 30 with loose housing system, both from} Transylvania, Romania. The {selection criteria were:|criteria for selection were|criteria used to select farms were|criteria for selecting farms were} {management practices, farm size|the management practices of the farm, its size|farming practices, size of the farm|Management practices, farm size}{, veterinary records and agreement| as well as veterinary records and the consent|, veterinary records , and the agreement| along with veterinary records and the approval} {of the farmers to take|by the farmers to take|of the farmers taking|from the farm owners to take} {part in the study|part in the study}.

In both {the loose and tied|tie and loose|the tie- and loose|the tied and loose} housing systems, {the cattle|the most popular cattle|the main cattle|cattle} breeds {were|included|used were} Holstein (30{%| percent}{and|as well as|in both systems, and|along with} Romanian Spotted Cattle (70%). The {mean milk production|average milk production|average production of milk|average amount of milk produced} per cow {per year in|in|over the course of a year on|for the year on} the farms {with|that had} {loose housing systems|open housing structures|the loose systems of housing|homes that were loose} (LHS) {was|is|were|included} 5089.2 kg{, and in those| while in the ones| and for those| as opposed to those} {with tie-stall housing systems|that had tie-stall systems for housing|which had tie-stall-based housing|equipped with tie-stalls housing} (THS) 5197.0 {kg|kilograms|tonnes|grams}{All the tie-stall farms were|All tie-stall farms were|All tie-stall farms are|The tie-stalls of all farms were} {closed, with solid flooring|closedand had solid flooring|closedand had flooring that was solid|enclosed, with solid floors}. The cows were {kept on|housed in|kept in} {stalls with length between|stalls that had lengths between|stalls that measured between|the stalls which had a length of} {160 cm and 250 cm|160cm and 250cm|160 cm to 250 cm}{, and width| and widths| and width| in width, and a width of} between {85 cm|85|85cm} and {190 cm|the 190cm|90 cm to 190 cm|193 cm}. In {90% of the|the majority of|90% of} tie-stall farms{ bedding was used|, bedding was used|, bedding was utilized|, bedding was employed} (straw or sawdust) in {small quantity|small quantities|small amounts|a small amount} (1.5 {kg/head/day or|kg./head./day, or|kg/head/day and} less). The cows {had access to|were able to|could|had access} {exercise|exercises|exercising|workout facilities} (pasture or paddock) in 13 tie-stall farms. The cows {were pasturing|were grazing|grazed|would pasture} {on average|in the average of|at an average} 10.6 hours {a day|per day,} {for 182 days a year|for 182 days of the year|throughout the year, 182 days|during 182 days}{The milking was done|The milking process was either|The milking was performed|Milking was carried out} {manually|by hand|in a manual manner|mechanically} (six farms) or mechanically (24 farms){, in| and in| within| inside} the barns. The farms {with loose system|that had loose systems} (LHS) were {both closed and half-opened|partially and fully open|fully- and partially-opened|completely closed, as well as half-opened}{, having| with| and had} {cubicles|cubbies|the cubicles|cabins} (22 farms) or straw yards (eight farms) {for the cows’|to allow the cows} rest. In the majority{ of the| of|} free-stall barns{, sawdust bedding was used| the bedding was made of sawdust| there was a sawdust bedding| it was used as a bedding made from sawdust}{The milking|Milking|It was the case that milking|In the past, milking} (automatic) was {done|performed|carried out} in {milking parlours, twice|milking parlours twice|parlours for milking, twice|milking parlourstwo times} {per day|every day|each day|daily}. In the {warm season|summer|warmer months|summer months}{, the cows were pasturing| the cows would be pasturing| the cows were grazing| the cows would go for a walk} {in five of the|on five} farms (on average{ 8 hours a|, 8 hours per|, 8 hours a} day, 192 {days a|days per|times a|days of the} year). {Each farm was|Every farm|The farms were|All farms} visited{ once|} {in the winter months,|during winter,|in winter,|during the winter months} {when the cows were housed|where the cows were kept|in which the cows were sheltered|during which time the cows were kept}.

{Welfare assessment|Assessment of welfare|Evaluation of the welfare|Assessment of wellbeing}

The {basis and reference|foundation and|base and the reference} {material for the welfare assessment|information for the assessment of welfare|source for the welfare assessment|information used to assess the welfare} of the cows {in|involved in} this {study was the Welfare Quality|research was the Welfare Quality|investigation was the Welfare Quality|case was the welfare quality} (r) Assessment Protocol for Cattle (Welfare Quality Consortium{,|} 2009). Two {trained assessors evaluated|assessors who were trained evaluated|experienced assessors assessed|certified assessors evaluated} the {cows in|cows on|cows of|animals in} each farm. {The assessors, experienced|The assessorsare experienced|The assessors, who are skilled|They are experts} in {cows’ welfare evaluation|the evaluation of cows’ welfare|evaluating the welfare of cows|the evaluation of the welfare of cows}{, have used the assessment| and assessment, had used the| as well as the assessment| utilized the assessment} {protocol before this study,|protocol prior to this study|procedure prior to the study} {in four farms with|in four farms that had|on four farms with|at four farms using} {different housing systems|two different systems of housing|distinct housing structures|various housing arrangements} (LHS {and|as well as} THS){, having| with| and| which had} {smaller numbers of|less} animals (50 cows{ on average| in total|, on average}{, data not included in| but not in| and not included in| which was not taken into} {this study|the present study|this research|this investigation}). The {training was finalised|training was completed|course was concluded|training was approved} {when an inter- and|after an inter- and|when an inter-and|by ensuring an inter and} intra-observer {agreement of at least|consensus of at least|agreement of at minimum|agrement of} {80% was reached|80percent was achieved|90% was reached|80per cent was reached} {for each measure of|for each of the measures in|for every measure of|on each aspect of} the protocol. {A total number of|The total number of|There were|A total of} 2624 {milking cows|cows that milked|dairy cows|milking cattle} (1205 cows {in farms with|in farms that have|from farms with} THS {and 1419 cows|as well as 1419 cattle|in farms with THS and 1419 calves|or 1419 in the farms} {in farms with|from farms with|in farms that have|that were in farms with} LHS) were {evaluated;|analyzed;|assessed;|assessed.} {their number in|the number of cows in|their numbers in|their total number for} each farm was {established|determined|calculated|set} {according to the instructions|in accordance with the guidelines|as per the requirements|according to the specifications} {of|in|from|for} the Welfare Quality assessment protocol. {This protocol includes four major|The protocol consists of four main|This protocol contains four major|The protocol comprises four major} {welfare principles|principles of welfare|guidelines for welfare|concepts of welfare}{, 12 criteria and| including 12 criteria and| as well as 12 criteria and| along with 12 criteria as well as} 29 {measures|indicators|criteria|metrics} (Table {1|1.}). The {validity, feasibility|reliability, validity,|feasibility, validity|reliability, efficacy} and {repeatability|reliability} of the welfare {measures recorded|measures analyzed|measures documented|indicators recorded} {were established in previous studies|have been proven in earlier studies|were proven in prior studies|were confirmed in previous research} (Knierim and Winckler{,|} 2009).

{To avoid disturbing the farming|To ensure that the farm activities are not disrupted|To prevent disturbing farming|In order to not interfere with farming} {activities and to conduct|activities and to carry out|activities and conduct|operations and to ensure that} the {assessment without interruption|evaluation without interruption|examination without interruptions|evaluation in a non-stop manner}{, prior| Prior| the prior| prior} arrangements were {made|agreed upon} with {each animal unit’s manager|the manager of each animal unit|the animal unit’s managers|each unit’s manager}{, regarding the| on the| concerning the time,| to determine the} {date, hour and estimated|dates, hours and approximate|timing, date, and|day, time and estimated} {duration of the farm visits|time of the farm visits|duration of farm visits|duration of the visits to the farm}{Also, the farm visits|Additionally, the farm visits|The farm visits|In addition, the visits to the farms} were {planned so that|scheduled so that|planned to ensure that|scheduled to take place} at {least four weeks passed|least four weeks had passed|the least four weeks had passed} {from the last|between the last|from the previous|from the end of the} {hoof trimming session|trim session of hoofs|cutting of the hoof|cut of the hoof} (for {a relevant lameness evaluation|an appropriate lameness assessment|an appropriate evaluation of lameness|an appropriate lameness test}). The {general investigation of|overall inspection of|investigation of all|entire investigation of} the farms {took place|was conducted} {during the morning milking of|in the morning when milking was conducted for} the cows. {Taking into account|In consideration of|Based on|With regard to} the {total number of the|number of|total amount of|total number of} milked cows {in|on|at} the farm, {as recommended|as suggested|as per the guidelines|in accordance with the recommendations} {by the assessment protocol,|by the assessment protocols,|in the assessment protocol|by the assessment procedure,} {a random selection of|an random selection of|random selection of the|an unintentional selection of} animals {took place|was made|was conducted|was carried out} (every {nth cow|one of the nth cows|Nth cow|an nth cow that is} {in the milking parlour in|in the milking parlour of|within the milking parlour at|inside the milking parlours of} the LHS farms{ or every nth|, or every nth|, or each nth| or each} cow {in a row in|that is in a row within|within a row in|in a row of} {the|THS farms).|one row in the|those of the} THS farms). The {selected animals were marked|chosen animals were identified|animals selected were marked|selected animals were identified} {with an animal marker,|by an animal marker|with an animal marker} and{ then|} {the same cows were assessed|the same cows were evaluated|the same cows were analyzed|those same cows were tested} {for the scoring of|to determine the score of|for scoring on|for scoring} {all measures, where|every measure, in cases where|the various measures, where|each measure, for which} random sampling was {required|needed|necessary|the only requirement}.

{Statistical analysis|Analysis of statistics|Analyzing statistical data|The statistical analysis}

{All statistical analyses were|The statistical analysis was|Each statistical study was|Every statistical evaluation was} {performed|conducted|carried out|done} {using|with} SPSS {for|to|with|in} Windows {version 17|Version 17|version 17.} (SPSS {Inc|Inc}., Chicago, IL, USA). Descriptive {statistical indicators were determined|indicators of statistical significance were identified} (mean{, standard error| and standard error| range, standard error| average, standard deviation} of {the mean, median,|the mean, median, and|the median, mean,|the mean, medianand} range) for {the 29 assessed|29 assessed|the 29 analyzed|29 of the assessed} {measures, for|indicators, based on|measures, as well as|variables, for} {the scores of the 11|the results of the 11|the scores of the eleven|scoring the 11} criteria{: absence of prolonged hunger| that included: absence of prolonged hunger| for the absence of prolonged hunger| such as absence of prolonged hungry} (APH){, absence| and absence| or absence| (absence} of {prolonged|persistent|excessive} thirst (APT){, comfort around| and comfort at| Comfort around| as well as comfort while} resting (CAR){, ease of| and ease of| as well as ease of| easy} {movement|moving} (EM){,|| and| (EM),} {absence of injuries|the absence of injury|lack of injuries|no injuries} (AI){,| and| as well as| (AI),} absence of {diseases|disease|illness|illnesses} (AD){, absence of| and absence of| as well as absence of| (AD)} {pain induced by management|the pain caused by management|discomfort caused by treatment|suffering caused by medical} procedures (APIMP){,| and| as well as| (APIMP),} expression of social {behaviours|behavior} (ESB){,| and| as well as| or} expression of other {behaviours|behaviors|behavior} (EOB){, good| and a good| Good| as well as a healthy} human-animal {relationship|relations|bond|relation} (GHAR){,| and| as well as} {positive emotional state|positively emotional status|the positive state of mind|Positive Emotional State} (PES) {and for the scores of the four welfare principles|as well as for scores on the 4 welfare principals|in addition to the score of four principles for welfare|along with the results of the welfare four standards} (good {feeding, good|food, healthy|eating, good|nutrition, good} housing{, good health, appropriate| healthy, good health, and appropriate| good health, appropriate| as well as good health and} {behaviour|behavior}{in the farms with|in the farms that had|on farms with|in farms with} LHS {and|as well as|in addition to|along with} THS. The {statistical significance|significance of the statistical analysis} of the {housing system’s effect|effect of housing|impact of the housing system|effects of housing} on {welfare|the welfare} (measures{, criteria and principles| of welfare, criteria and the principles| that measure, criteria, and principles| guidelines, standards and concepts} of welfare) {in the studied farms|in the farms studied|on the farms that were studied|in the farms examined} was {determined by|assessed using|established using|ascertained by} {the|testing the|an analysis using the|tests such as the} {t|test of t|the t|tests of the}-test {or the Mann-Whitney|as well as the Mann-Whitney|and the Mann-Whitney|either the MannWhitney} {test, depending|testbased|Test, based|test, based} {on the normal|upon the regular|of the normative|on normal} or {abnormal distribution of the|irregular distribution of the|abnormal distribution of} {data, established with|results, as determined by|data, determined using|information, which was determined by} {the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test|the Kolmogorov Smirnov test|The Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test|an analysis of Kolmogorov and Smirnov}{P values less|Values of p less|P values that were less|A P value less} {than|that|then|of} 0.05 were considered{ as| to be|} significant.

{Results and discussion|Discussion and results}

{Animal based measures of good|Measures based on animals of good|Animal-based measures of quality|Animal-based indicators of healthy} {feeding, housing and|nutrition, housing and|food, housing, and overall|eating, housing, and} health

Table 2 {comparatively presents|presents|compares|provides a comparative overview of} the descriptive {statistical indicators|statistics indicators|indicators of statistics} (mean{,| and| range,| as well as the} {standard error of the|average error,|normal error and range of|median and standard deviation of} {mean, median|median, mean} and {range|the range}) of {the animal-based measures|animal-based measures|the measures based on animals|measures that are based on animals} {for the principles of good|to assess the fundamentals of good|for the requirements of good|for the main principles of healthy} {feeding, housing and|nutrition, housing and|food, housing, and|eating, housing, and overall} health{, assessed in the| that are assessed in|, as measured in|, which are evaluated in} {loose and tie-stall|tie-stall and loose|tie-stall and loose-stall|tie-stall as well as loose} farms. {Significant differences were found|There were significant differences|Significant differences were observed|There were notable differences} between {the two housing systems,|the two housing systems|the two housing options,|both housing systems} {for 14 out of|for 14 of the|in 14 out of|with 14 out of} 21 {parameters|variables}. The {analysis of the results|study} {shows some advantages|highlights the advantages|suggests some advantages|provides some benefits} of the {loose housing|more loose housing system|housing that is loose|open housing} for {the dairy cows|dairy cows}.

{No|There was no} significant {difference|distinction|differences|variation} (P>0.05) {between|in the two systems|among|Between} LHS {and|or|as well as|in comparison to} THS was {found|observed|detected|seen} in the {mean percentage|average percentage|percentage|average proportion} of {very thin cows,|cows with very thin skin,|extremely thin cows|very thin cows} {although it was slightly|however, it was|though it was slightly|but it was slightly} {higher in the farms with|higher in farms that had|more in the farms that have|greater in the farms with} LHS. In both systems{ the percentage|, the proportion|, the percentage|, the percent} of {very thin cows|cows that were extremely thin|extremely thin cows} was higher than {that obtained|the one recorded|that found|what was found} by Regula {et al|and co}. (2004) in {loose and tie-stall farms|tie-stall and loose farms|tie-stall and loose-stall farms|tie-stall and loose farm systems} in Switzerland {and by Ostojic-Andric|and Ostojic-Andric|as well as by Ostojic-Andric|and by Ostojic} {et al|and others}. (2011) in Serbia. {Besides the fact that the|In addition to the fact that|Apart from the fact that|Alongside the fact that} {cows loose weight because of|cows lose weight due to|cows are losing weight due to|cattle lose weight due} the {inadequate|poor|insufficient|low} {quality and quantity of the|quantity and quality of the|quantity and quality of|amount and quality of} feed{, in| and feed, in| as well as the lack of quality and quantity of feed in| In} LHS {often the feed-front is|frequently the feed-front is|typically, the feed-front is|most of the time the feed-fronts are} too {short for the|small for|small to allow|short to accommodate the} {simultaneous feeding of all|continuous feeding|feed of the entire|concurrent feeding}{ of|} {the animals|livestock|these animals|those animals} (Estevez et al.{,|} 2007). {Also, the lame cows|Additionally, the cows with lameness|In addition, the cows that are lame|The lame cows} {spend less time in feeding|are less active in feeding|have less time to feed|consume less food} (Gomez and Cook{,|} 2010). The {high percentage of the|large proportion of|high proportion of} {lame cows in|lazy cows found in|lacy cows that are found within|poor cows of} LHS {may|could} be one {of the causes|of the reasons|reason|of the main causes} {of the high number|of the large number|of the excessive number|for the high percentage} of {thin cows|cows that are thin|cows with thin skin}.

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BUSINESS

How NZ post bags make parcel packing a breeze Introduction

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How NZ post bags make parcel packing a breeze Introduction

If you’re like most people, you hate having to pack your parcels. You probably spend hours trying to get everything just right, and then the last thing you want to do is carry them all around. But that’s where post bags come in handy. They make parcel packing a breeze, and there are a lot of different styles available to suit your needs. Whether you need a large bag that can hold a lot of items or something more compact, NZ post bags are the perfect option. So why not give them a try next time you have to pack a parcel?

 

How NZ post bags make parcel packing a breeze:

NZ post bags have revolutionized parcel packing for New Zealanders. They are made from durable and lightweight materials, making them easy to transport and store.

  1. NZ post bags are made from durable and lightweight materials, making them easy to transport and store.

 

  1. They are perfect for smaller parcels, as they are well-ventilated and dividable.

 

  1. NZ post bags come in a variety of sizes, so you can find the perfect one for your needs.

 

  1. The zippered closure ensures that your parcels are secure while being transported.

 

  1. NZ post bags are easy to clean and maintain, making them a great option for everyone.

 

Benefits of using NZ post bags:

There are many benefits to using NZ post bags when mailing packages. Firstly, they are small and lightweight, so they are easy to transport. Secondly, they are made from high-quality materials that will not tear or fray easily. Lastly, NZ post bags come with a discreet stamp that guarantees delivery in time for the recipient’s needs.

 

Why NZ post bags are popular in New Zealand?

NZ post bags have become popular in New Zealand for a few reasons. Firstly, they are environmentally friendly as they can be reused multiple times. Secondly, they are affordable and last long. Thirdly, they are sturdy and durable making them perfect for everyday use. Finally, they come in a variety of colors and styles to suit everyone’s needs.

 

Final Words

NZ post bags are the perfect option for sending parcels and letters all over the country. With a variety of sizes, colors, and designs to choose from, there is sure to be one that fits your needs. So if you’re looking for a reliable and affordable mail system, look no further than NZ post bag!

 

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BUSINESS

Prada Cologne Review | Perfume Elegance

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Prada Cologne Review | Perfume Elegance

If you are in the market for a new perfume, you might want to consider Prada cologne. The leathery fougere scents are modern florals with a hint of spice. They’re a very seductive scent without being overly expensive. You can read our review of Prada cologne below. To get a feel for the fragrance, try spraying it on your skin before going out.

Prada cologne is a leathery fougere

If you’re looking for an affordable men’s cologne, you’ve probably considered the Luna Rossa collection. The Luna Rossa Cologne is a neo-fresh scent, and it is in the fougere family, with leathery notes and citrus, floral, and solid woody undertones. Compared to other men’s colognes, this one has a price tag between $100 and $120 for a full-sized bottle.

This fragrance was created by IFF Master Perfume online canada Anne Flipo and Carlos Benaim. It has a unique neo-fresh signature, which sublimates bergamot and vetiver notes into a luminous cocktail. The heart notes are composed of citrus and lavender, while the base is comprised of Carmel and Patchouli. This Prada cologne is a leathery fougere that is perfect for both men and women.

It is a modern floral

If you’re looking for a new fragrance, try Prada Candy, which was launched in August 2011. This scent contains an elegant blend of musks on top, a balsamic vanillic accord of benzoin in the heart, and a sweet modern caramel at the base. Whether you’re wearing this cologne on a romantic date or attending a business event, it is sure to turn heads.

La Femme Prada is a modern floral fragrance, paying homage to a surprising flower – Frangipani. This fragrance also contains notes of Ylang-Ylang, beeswax, vanilla, tuberose absolute, and feminine vetiver. It is a modern floral scent that complements both a man’s stylish style and his refined taste. It is available only in the United States.

It is a seductive fragrance

The Exclusive Scents line by Prada is a modern interpretation of classic scents. Each scent uses the finest ingredients from Grasse, the perfume capital of the world. Each perfume is unique in its own sensual identity. Prada cologne is the perfect scent for a date or a night out. The collection features ten exclusive fragrances, each with its own sensual identity. Prada cologne is one of the most popular fragrances in the world and is a staple of many luxury fashion houses.

Amber Pour Homme is the first Prada scent for men, and was a hit when it first debuted in 2006. This sexy fragrance mixes classic notes with a modern twist, defining the brand in menswear. Another cologne from Prada, Amber Intense, intensifies the classic amber scent. It opens with bergamot, cardamom, and neroli and features notes of musk, patchouli, and vetiver.

It is not overly pricey

Prada colognes are not overly expensive and can be purchased online. There are different scents and price points. Prices range from $30 to $90. Some fragrances are overpriced while others are inexpensive. Prada colognes are not necessarily the best quality. Listed below are some of the fragrances you should try. Some of them are also a little bit offensive.

Cargo de Neroli opens with floral and neroli notes, then transitions to a warm amber scent with whispers of black pepper. There is also a woody undertone to round out the scent. It’s not a super masculine scent but it does have a sexy, sophisticated appeal. Those in the twenty-and-up age range will like it. This is a great scent for office wear.

It is a statement cologne

It is a luxury brand known for its elegant designer clothing and bags, but Prada’s colognes are actually one of their cheapest products. Unlike their luxury perfumes, Prada fragrances are affordable, yet still have luxurious notes. The range of Prada fragrances for men spans from classic fragrances to exotic scents. The result is an olfactory experience worthy of walking the red carpet.

The scent is extremely fresh and pleasant, not too sweet or sexy, and does not linger long. It smells best on a white shirt and lasts for up to 12 hours. Men who want a masculine scent can try Prada L’homme, which is a great fragrance for the office or warm days. It lasts up to 12 hours, making it perfect for everyday wear.

It is a classic fragrance

The original L’Homme and La Femme colognes were introduced by Prada in 2006, but its recent introduction of Amber Intense has changed the way men and women smell. Its classic notes of bitter orange, patchouli, and musk are given a modern twist, and the perfume has been compared to the scent of a former flame. The fragrance has a sweet, sensual smell that is not too heavy.

Prada’s Candy scent captures the spirit of unbound freedom after dark. It contains a blend of orange, bitter orange, neroli, vanilla, and white musk. Amber is the star of the fragrance, but this modern version is not overly heavy. The fragrance will last a long time on the skin, making it a versatile choice. It’s also an incredibly classy choice for a man’s cologne.

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BUSINESS

How to Use SMS Surveys for Marketing Research

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Want to learn How to Use SMS Surveys? Well, this article is for you!

As we all know, the best way to keep your customers coming back is to give them something they want. And the best way to get people to want what you have is through a survey. Surveys are one of the most effective ways for businesses to get their message out there and gain insight into how their products or services are being used. The key here is that you don’t just need to go out and ask people what they think about your product or service — you have to use surveys as a part of your marketing strategy. 

Whether you’re running a traditional business or an online company, using surveys for marketing research can help increase brand recognition, drive engagement and retention amongst your customers, and ultimately lead to more sales. 

To send bulk sms and get response from the receivers, you can use short code Canadian service at a reasonable price!

However, read on for everything you need to know about using SMS surveys for marketing research!

How to Use a Survey for Marketing Research

Surveys are a quick and easy way to get feedback on your product or service. If you decide to use surveys for marketing research, you must make sure that you are offering a valuable and interesting survey. What’s more, you also need to make sure that your survey is relevant to your customers and meets certain quality criteria. 

This is why it’s important to do market research first before you start creating surveys. To get the most out of surveys for marketing research, you will need to have a clear goal in mind. This will help you to choose the right questions to ask and provide the information you need. Getting respondents to answer your survey quickly and accurately is also essential.

Why Use a Survey for Marketing Research?

For many companies, the key to growing their business is to get more customers on board. This can be done through a variety of different channels, including but not limited to: Facebook Twitter Linkedin Google Plus Podcasts Video

How to Run a SMS Survey

To run a survey for marketing research, you will need a smartphone app that is capable of sending and receiving text messages. Many of these apps are free and easy to use. 

There are many different types of surveys that you can choose from, like open-ended and short-answer. If you’re interested in learning more about using survey apps for marketing research, feel free to check out our dedicated guide.

Goal of a SMS survey

When someone accepts a survey, you want to make sure that they are actually interested in what you have to say. This is why it’s important to choose the right goal for your survey. 

This can be difficult because many surveys focus on a wide range of topics, making it hard to know where to focus your survey. The best approach is to choose a goal that is relevant to your product or service, but also makes sense for your customers. For example, if your survey focused on customer service issues, you would want your survey to guide you towards the right question.

LiveConducting an Online and a Text-Based Survey

When it comes time to conduct your online and a text-based survey, you will want to make sure that you are using surveys that are live. This means that the questions you are sending out will actually be answered by the respondents. 

If you’re looking for a quick and easy way to get your data, you can always subcontract out the actual survey-completion. This is a quick and easy way to gain insight into how your customers are actually using your product or service.

Takeaway

The best way to get more customers on board with your products or services is through a survey. Surveys are quick and easy ways for businesses to get their message out, and they can do so while gaining insight into how their products or services are being used. 

The key here is to make sure that you use surveys that are relevant to your customers, and meet certain quality criteria. These will help you to gain a better understanding of your customers, and ultimately increase retention among your customers.

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