The Islamic Republic of Pakistan (hereinafter referred to as Pakistan) is suffering from climate change, increasing urbanization, environmental degradation and increasingly serious and widespread natural disasters. Pakistan is prone to natural disasters such as droughts, floods, heat waves, extreme cold and earthquakes. According to the 2021 Climate Risk Index, Pakistan is ranked eighth among the countries most affected by extreme weather events between 2000 and 2019.
In recent years, Pakistan has faced a number of dangers. Dry conditions that began in late 2018 and continued through 2019 affected five million people, of which 2.1 million were in need of humanitarian assistance. This was followed by a winter emergency that affected a million people in much of the western part of the country. The worst Desert Locust outbreak in 27 years was declared a national emergency by the government in January 2020.
This was followed by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which began in February 2020 and contributed to health and economic crises, educational disruptions and increased food insecurity. In September 2020, the government declared a national emergency due to heavy monsoon rains that caused widespread flooding in the province of Sindh, affecting about 2.4 million people.
The Government of Pakistan has a solid foundation in disaster management built on top of the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), Provincial Disaster Management Authorities (PDMA) and 2010 national legislation. . reduction framework, including the Pakistan Vision 2025, the National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP) 2012-2022 and the National Flood Protection Plan IV (NFPPIV) 2015-2025. Humanitarian partners are also working in various areas to ensure that the response is aligned with government action. The United Nations (UN) and humanitarian workers are working closely with NDMA, PDMA, line ministries and the National Disaster Risk Management Fund (NDRMF) to support these initiatives.
The Government of Pakistan, with the support of international and domestic humanitarian and development partners, has responded to the pandemic by stepping up response coordination, case management, laboratory surveillance and testing services, health systems, and community mobilization to prepare for the impact of COVID-19. 19 The UN is working with federal and provincial governments at various levels to help coordinate COVID-19 preparedness and response management. Through the coordination mechanisms, the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) supported the Humanitarian Coordinator and the Humanitarian Country Team through the implementation of the Global Humanitarian Response Plan, including support for coordination at the national and provincial levels through working groups. with NDMA/PDMA and related ministries and departments.
Various agencies including the World Bank, World Food Program (WFP), Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Children’s the United Nations Fund (UNICEF), UN Women and others are coordinating in the country to achieve these goals and alleviate the burden. For example, UNICEF has focused its water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) activities and capacity development support by focusing WASH/infection prevention and control (IPC) activities in 20 of the 27 high-burden districts. This activity included the development of a national WASH/IPC COVID-19 preparedness and response plan. Nearly nine million people in the country have been supported with hygiene promotion services, including information on COVID-19 prevention and control, and about five million people are using additional handwashing facilities in affected areas.